Persian Garden: Iranian invention of Chahar Bagh
The Persian Garden, with three certain features and an exclusive design, is globally well-known as an outstanding example of Persian culture: They are located along water streams, surrounded by high walls, and contain a summer edifice and a pool.
Persian gardens listed on UNESCO World Heritage List
Chehel Sotoun Palace Garden
Shah Abbas Safavid I (1571-1629 CE) used urban development and civil activities to consolidate and stabilize his kingdom. He was very active in the construction of Iranian caravanserais and gardens so that he could gain the favor of the people, iransafar.com reported.
Registered on the UNESCO World Heritage List, the Chehel Sotoun Palace Garden in Isfahan, the central province of Isfahan, is an exquisite example of Iranian art designed by Sheikh Baha’i in the 17th century CE. According to historical documents, Shah Abbas II built the palace in the middle of an old garden to celebrate his coronation. Later, the building was used as a hall to receive foreign guests.
At the time of the Afghan invasion of Isfahan, most of the city’s monuments, especially Chehel Sotoun, were heavily damaged. During the time of the Qajar Dynasty (1789-1925 CE) and the reign of Zel-ol-Sultan (son of Nasseredin Shah), many exquisite objects of the palace and its mirrors were moved to Tehran for the construction of Masoudieh Garden.
Although the exact date of its construction is unknown, many stories about the Eram Garden of Shiraz, in the southwestern province of Fars, have been written in travelogues of western travelers who visited Shiraz in the 17th and 18th centuries. According to authentic historical documents, the garden was built during the Seljuk Era (1037–1194 CE) following the order of Sultan Sanjar. But this was not the end, and in later centuries, Shiraz rulers restored various parts of it.
In the Qajar Era, during the reign of Nassereddin Shah, the garden became part of the royal estate and was given to the rulers of Shiraz, therefore, a new mansion was designed and founded by Hossein Ali Khan Nasir-ol-Molk.
Two unique features of the Eram Garden of Shiraz are the variety of vegetation and the architecture employed in the construction of the mansion which follows a complex of different styles.
Perhaps if the assassination of Amir Kabir, chief minister to Nassereddin Shah Qajar for the first three years of his reign, in 1852 had not happened at Kashan’s Fin Garden, people would rarely have known this garden and its famous bath. It was during the reign of Buyid Dynasty (934 to 1062 CE), when the initial design of the garden was done. Later, it was completely destroyed by an earthquake, and once again by the Mongol invasion. The garden was restored during the Safavid Era (1501-1736 CE).
Shazdeh Garden is located near the tomb of King Nematollah Vali (1330-1431) in the city of Mahan (20km from Kerman, southeastern province of Kerman). One of the most prominent features of Shazdeh Garden is its location in the heart of the desert.
In the Qajar Era, a famous Yazdi architect Nasser al-Dawlah designed and built this garden next to the central mansion.
There are many fruit trees in the garden, and in front of the mansion are pools and fountains whose water is supplied from Tigran River.
Among the most unique Iranian gardens, we must point to Dowlatabad Garden of Yazd. With an area of about 70,000 sq.m, this garden includes many buildings, ponds and water fountains.
In addition to the garden itself which was registered on UNESCO’s list, there is also a wind tower in the garden, which is known as the tallest in the world, with a height of 33.8m, built in the late Afsharid Period (1736-1796 CE), by Mohammad Taqi Khan Bafqi. He is one of the prominent figures in the towns of Dowlatabad and Mehriz.
Another beautiful Iranian garden, inscribed on UNESCO’s list, is Akbariyeh Garden in Birjand, South Khorasan Province, with a total area of 3.5 hectares.
The city of Birjand is known as the first Iranian city to have an old and extensive pipeline and drainage system. During the Zandieh Period (1751–1779 CE), Birjand was recognized as one of the strategic cities of the Great Khorasan Province. The local ruler, Ali Akbar Khan Khazimeh, ordered the construction of a beautiful and magnificent building beside the qanat of the city and on the slopes of Mount Bagheran so that it could both show off his power and also protect the city. A two-story mansion was established at that time, with the first floor reserved for public servants and guests, and the second floor for private life and visits.
During the Qajar (1789-1925 CE) and Pahlavi (1925-1979 CE) periods, various buildings were added to the Akbariyeh Garden. Various parts of the garden include the entrance, the main mansion, service spaces, and three entrances to the mansion, the stables and the courtyard.
Pahlavanpour Garden is one of the greenest and most lush gardens of Yazd Province located in Mehriz. This garden dates back to the Qajar Era. Three important qanats of the city of Mehriz pass through Pahlavanpour Garden.
One of the most important features of the garden is its trees. In spite of the dry and warm climate of Yazd, pomegranate, persimmon and almond trees grow in this garden, which is due to the high water supply of the garden. The garden consists of an old pavilion, a waterfall, a central courtyard, a bathroom, a dormitory, a caretaker’s house, and a winter house.
To be countinued